Contemplation of the 3rd and 4th Verses of Al-Qiyamat Surah to Compare the Fingerprints of Normal Population with Hemophilia Carriers

Article Information:


Group: 2011
Subgroup: Vol. 1, Iss. 2, Autumn [En]
Date: October 2011
Type: Original Article
Start Page: 9
End Page: 13

Authors:

Abstract:


Background: Given that hemophilia is a common health problem which imposes a lot of costs on health organizations, it is highly important to detect its carriers. However, expensive diagnostic techniques have hindered the detection of hemophilia carriers even in developed countries. Since it has been proved that each person has his/her own unique fingerprints and this has also been mentioned in the Holy Koran, the present study has been conducted to compare the fingerprints of hemophilia carriers with those of normal population.
Objectives: The main aim of this study is to ponder on the 3rd & 4th verses of Al-Qiyamat surah comparing the fingerprints of hemophilia carriers with those of normal population.
Materials and Methods: This case-control study was carried out in 2011. 45 mothers of hemophilia patients who were referred to hemophilia center in Arak City were chosen as carriers in the case group and 113 healthy women were randomly selected as the control group. advanced, the fingerprints of the subjects were determined by a forensic medicine expert who was blind to the group which the subjects belonged to. The main types of fingerprints including arch, loop, whorl and other type were identified.
Results: The most common fingerprints in all the fingers of the subjects were loop, whorl, arch and the others. Like the control group, the most common fingerprint found in the carriers of hemophilia was loop. Yet, a significant difference was noticed between the fingerprints of hemophilia carriers and those of the control group so that the average number of loop fingerprints in the ten fingers of hemophilia carriers was significantly fewer than the control group, and the average number of arch and other kinds of fingerprints in the ten fingers of hemophilia carriers was more than the control group. The average number of whorl fingerprints in all ten fingers was not significantly different between the two groups. Also, except for the thumb and the forefinger of the right hand, the fingerprints of other fingers were significantly different in hemophilia carriers and the control group.
Conclusions: The results of the present study revealed that the fingerprints of hemophilia carriers are different from those of normal population. Since it has been proved that each individual’s fingerprints are different from another, we can point out the miraculous statement of the Holy Koran about the recreation of finger-tips in response to someone who had denied afterlife 1400 years ago.


 

Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education:
Using medical Verses in the field of forensic medicine.

Please cite this paper as:
Solhi H, Eghbali A, Eshrati B, Khoddami Vishteh HR, Salehpour R, Gharedaghi J. Contemplation of the 3rd and 4th Verses of Al-Qiyamat Surah to compare the Fingerprints of Normal Population with Hemophilia Carriers. Quran Med. 2011; 1(2):9-13. DOI: 10.5812/quranmed.4974

Published by Kowsar Corp. All rights reserved.


Keywords: Hemophilia; Hemophilia Carrier; Fingerprint; Miracle of the Holy Koran

Manuscript Body:


1. Background

Hemophilia is the most common chronic hereditary hemorrhagic disorder which is dependent on recessive sex chromosome, and its prevalence rate is 1 in 500010000 male neonates all over the world (1). This disorder is caused by the shortage of coagulation factors or a deficiency in their production or function. Normally, one defective gene from the mother can cause hemophilia in males, while females become a carrier by receiving one defective gene from one of the parents. Males with hemophilia present with some clinical manifestations such as hemorrhage in joints and muscles, post-trauma or post-operation bleeding, gasterointestinal bleeding, bruises and some other similar signs (2). Other significant problems that these patients are faced with include being infected with HIV and hepatitis viruses due to receiving blood products, bleeding during operation or dentistry procedures, and psychological problems of having a hereditary disease on the part of the patient himself or his family members. Although treatment with coagulation factors is satisfactory, it imposes a lot of costs on patients and health organizations especially in developing countries (3-5). Therefore, nowadays it is important to detect the carriers of hemophilia using different methods such as determining the level of coagulation factors in blood, gene linkage, investigating mutation in patients and other members of their family (6). However, each of these methods can cost a lot and cannot be thoroughly followed even in developed countries. In addition, about 30% of hemophilia cases have no family history (7). So, finding cost-effective methods to screen the carriers can be of great importance.
Fingerprints first appear between the 7th and 21st weeks of fetal period and are unique for each individual and remain unchanged during one’s lifespan (8). Determining the type of fingerprints is non-invasive and is considered as a science these days. Scientists have been able to find relations between some diseases like Down syndrome, mental retardation, multiple sclerosis, thalassemia and the types of fingerprints (9-20), and they are working on some other health problems too. Extensive researches carried out in this regard can confirm the miraculous statement of the Holy Koran, in the 3rd & 4th verses of Al-Qiyamat surah, about the recreation of finger-tips in response to someone who had denied afterlife. In order to improve screening methods and early diagnosis of hemophilia carriers, the present study was designed to investigate and compare the fingerprints of carriers with those of normal population.

2.Objectives

The main aim of this study is to ponder on the 3rd & 4th verses of Al-Qiyamat surah comparing the fingerprints of hemophilia carriers with those of normal population.

3. Materials and Methods

This case-control study was conducted in 2011. 45 mothers of hemophilia patients who were referred to hemophilia center in Arak City were chosen in terms of the time when they had been referred to the clinic as the case group. 113 healthy women were randomly selected as the control group. Intact surface of finger-tips, no dermatological problems or burns which could ruin fingerprints, and no amputation of any of the hand fingers were the criteria to participate in this study. Permission was granted from the officials and the written consent of the participants was obtained too. A trained expert fingerprinted all the fingers of both hands of the subjects. To do this, first the finger-tips were thoroughly cleaned. Then, the first joint of each of the fingers was rolled from right to left on a special stamp used for fingerprinting and in the same way on the paper. Personal information such as first name, last name, age and gender was written on the paper too. The fingerprints of the subjects were determined by a forensic medicine expert who was blind to the group which the subjects belonged to. The advanced Henry method was applied and the main types of fingerprints including arch, loop, whorl and other types were identified (Figure 1). The last types included 3 subgroups of loop type including different types of twin loops, random and lateral pocket loop, which were categorized in this group because of their low frequency. Also, the fingerprints which could not be identified due to technical flaws were located as unknown in this group. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS V.13. The total number of fingerprint types and each type of fingerprints in each group were described in terms of frequency and percentage. To investigate the difference between the fingerprints of both studied groups, we used Chi-square test. Independent sample t-test was used to investigate the difference in the means of the number of fingerprints in all ten fingers between the two studied groups. P < 0.05 was considered significant.

 

Figure 1. Main kinds of fingerprint (a)

Arch, (b) loop & (c) Rotational

 

3. Results

158 subjects participated in the study: 45 hemophilia carriers as the case group and 113 healthy women as the control group. The most common fingerprints in all the fingers of the subjects were as follows: loop (839 cases, 53%),whorl (395 cases, 25%), arch (183 cases, 12%), and others (163 cases, 10%). Like the control group, the most common type of fingerprint in hemophilia carriers was loop. Yet, a significant difference was noticed between the types of fingerprints in all fingers of the carriers and the control group (Table 1). Table 2 shows the mean of fingerprint types in all ten fingers of the subjects. As it is seen, the mean number of loop fingerprints in the ten fingers of the carriers is significantly less than the control group, while the mean number of arch and other types of fingerprints is significantly more than the control group (P < 0.05). The mean number of whorl fingerprints was not significantly different in both groups (P > 0.05).

 

Table 1. Frequency of Fingerprints of All Fingers of the Subjects

 

Arch

Loop

Whorl

Other

P- Valuea

Hemophilia carriers

90 (20%)

177 (40%)

105 (23%)

78 (17%)

<0.001

Control

93 (8%)

662 (59%)

290 (26%)

85 (7%)

a Chi-square test

Table 2. Mean of Fingerprint Kinds in Subjects’ Finger

 

Arch

Loop

 Whorl

Other

Hemophilia carriers

2

3.9

2.3

1.7

Control

0.8

5.9

2.6

0.8

P- Valuea

<0.001

<0.001

0.603

0.001

a Independent T-test

Table 3 shows the frequency of each of the fingerprints in each of the fingers in both groups. As it is seen, except for the thumb and forefinger of the right hand, a significant difference is noticed in fingerprint types between the hemophilia carriers and the control group.

 

Table 3. Mean of Fingerprint Kinds of Left-Hand Finger

 

Arch

Loop

Whorl

Other

P- Valuea

Right-hand

Thumb

.163

Hemophilia carriers 0 (0%) 32 (71%) 7 (16%) 6 (13%)
Control

3 (3%)

60 (53%)

31 (27%)

19 (17%)

Index Finger

.112

Hemophilia carriers 11 (24%) 20 (45%) 8 (18%) 6 (13%)
Control

19 (17%)

48 (43%)

39 (35%)

7 (6%)

The Middle Finger

0.001

Hemophilia carriers 11 (25%) 14 (30%) 9 (20%) 11 (25%)
Control

8 (7%)

86 (76%)

15 (13%)

4 (4%)

Ring Finger

<0.001

Hemophilia carriers 4 (9%) 31 (68%) 3 (7%) 7 (16%)
Control

3 (3%)

58 (51%)

50 (44%)

2 (2%)

Pinky

.024

Hemophilia carriers 3 (7%) 25 (56%) 11 (24%) 6 (13%)
Control

5 (4%)

88 (78%)

16 (14%)

4 (4%)

Left-hand

Thumb

0.001

Hemophilia carriers 13 (29%) 8 (18%) 19 (42%) 5 (11%)
Control

4 (4%)

61 (54%)

23 (20%)

25 (22%)

Index Finger

001

Hemophilia carriers 20 (44%) 4 (9%) 13 (29%) 8 (18%)
Control

 

22 (19%)

49 (43%)

32 (28%)

10 (9%)

The Middle Finger

001

Hemophilia carriers 2 (5%) 15 (33%) 15 (33%) 13 (29%)
Control

16 (14%)

72 (64%)

18 (16%)

7 (6%)

Ring Finger

<0.001

Hemophilia carriers 12 (27%) 16 (35%) 10 (22%) 7(16%)
Control

5 (4%)

57 (51%)

50 (44%)

1 (1%)

Pinky

0.001

Hemophilia carriers 14 (31%) 12 (27%) 10 (22%) 9 (20%)
Control

8 (7%)

83 (74%)

16 (14%)

6 (5%)

a Independent T-test

4. Discussion

The results of the current study shows that like normal population, the most prevalent fingerprint type in all fingers of the hemophilia carriers was loop. Yet, the number of loop fingerprints in all ten fingers of the carriers was fewer than normal population, but the number of arch and other types of fingerprints was more. The number of whorl fingerprints in the case group was the same as the control group. Furthermore, except for the thumb and forefinger of the right hand, the fingerprints of other fingers were different in the carriers and the healthy subjects.
As far as we know, this study is the only one made to determine the fingerprints of hemophilia carriers. It has been proved that we can hardly ever find similar fingerprints of two different individuals. This means that each individual’s fingerprints are unique, representing his/ her own genetic make-up. So, fingerprinting has become a science with many different usages. One of its usages in medicine is to differentiate diseases. Fingerprints appear in fetal period and remain unchanged throughout one’s lifespan. Therefore, fingerprinting can be a simple and available tool to study genetic disorders especially abnormal chromosomes (21). Abnormal fingerprints have been observed in Down syndrome, mental disorders, glaucoma, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer disease, cancer of uterus, Wilson disease, psoriasis, vitiligo, brachial plexus palsy, congenital heart diseas, borderline personality, schizophrenia, autism, and thalassemia (9-20).
The current study also reveals that the fingerprints of hemophilia carriers are different from normal population. Since the detection of carriers of genetic diseases is of great importance and performing specific medical tests can be very costly, fingerprinting can be used as a simple tool to screen the suspected cases. However, in spite of the fact that clinical and morphological studies have shown the effects of genetic and environmental factors on dermatoglyphic plans (22-24), fingerprinting as a simple tool along with other methods can help us with early diagnosis of many diseases. One of the miracles of the Holy Koran is about the recreation of fingertips, i.e. fingerprints. This issue has been mentioned in the 3rd and 4th verses of Al-Qiyamat surah. The Lord says, ‘‘Does man think that we cannot gather his bones? After his body is decomposed and turned into dust? Even we are able to put in order his finger-tips.” There are different narrations about the significance of descending the above-mentioned verses in Tafsir-e-Nemooneh: Once of the pagans who was living in the Prophet’s neighborhood, named Ali-ebne-Abi-Rabieh, went to see him and asked him about how and when afterlife would be. He also said that even if he could see that day with his own eyes, he would not believe how the Lord would be able to gather all one’s bones. The above-mentioned verses were sent upon the Prophet at the same moment to answer him (25). Allameh Tabatabaee wrote in his book Al-Mizan: these verses could mean that God can gather all man’s bones and recreate his finger-tips, and if the Lord mentions fingers among all other body parts is because he wants to point out the complicated structure and various functions of the fingers such as giving, taking, touching, sensing, etc. which can differentiate humans from animals. In addition, fingers have various forms and prints which have always been mysterious for humans (26). The variety of researches conducted on fingerprints and their relation with different diseases indicates the miracle of the Holy Koran about 1400 years ago.
The present study is the only one made to investigate the fingerprints of hemophilia carriers in Iran, and it suggests that fingerprinting can be used as a non-invasive, simple, cost-effective and efficient method to screen large populations for hemophilia. Nevertheless, one of its limitations is ignoring the folds between the hand fingers and the lines on the foot fingers. Also, this study was limited to one medical center and it is possible that fingerprints vary in different geographical regions. Thus, it is suggested that further studies be done on more samples and in different geographical locations.
The result of the present study showed that although the most common type of fingerprint found in hemophilia carriers was loop like the control group, compared with normal population the number of loop fingerprints in all ten fingers was fewer and the number of arch and other types of fingerprints was more. The whorl type of fingerprint showed no difference.
As we now know each person’s fingerprints vary from another one, we can confess to the miraculous statement of the Holy Koran about the recreation of finger-tips in response to someone who had denied afterlife 1400 years ago. So, it can be concluded that diseases can affect fingerprints and in order to establish an early cost-effective diagnosis, fingerprinting can be used to screen for genetic disorders and their carriers.

Acknowledgments
None declared.

Authors’ Contribution
None declared.

Financial Disclosure
None declared.

Financial /Support
None declared.

Control

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