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Evaluating Therapeutic Properties of Quranic Fruits, and Their Effects on Health Promotion


1 Department of Islamic Studies, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, IR Iran
2 Department of Medicine, University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, IR Iran
3 Medical plants Research Center and Islamic Medical Research Center, Shahrekord, IR Iran
*Corresponding author: Javad Nikmoeen, Department of Islamic Studies, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, IR Iran. Tel: +98-3813330932, E-mail: j.nikmoeen@cc.iut.ac.ir.
Quran and Medicine. 2014 February; 3(1)
Article Type: Review Article; Received: Mar 13, 2013; Revised: Jul 3, 2013; Accepted: Aug 11, 2013; epub: Feb 1, 2014; ppub: Feb 2014

Abstract


Context: Since most of the fruits are rich in vitamins, minerals, and salts they often have significant effects on human health; hence, continuous consumption of fruits, because of water, sugar, fat, protein, vitamins, and etc. plays a significant role in prevention and treatment of many diseases. In this regard, Holy Quran, the book of healing and mercy, has dragged human attention toward certain fruits such as grape, olive, pomegranate, date, and fig. Certainly, there are physical and mental benefits to humans, in this notice of Knowing God. The current study aimed to evaluate therapeutic properties of Quranic fruits and their effects on health promotion.

Evidence Acquisitions: The current study was a review research which was conducted according to Islamic references such as Holy Quran and Islamic interpretations, medical narratives, traditional and modern medicine books, published articles, and advanced internet search.

Results: In Holy Quran, God has mentioned grape 11 times, olive 6times, pomegranate 3 times, date once (palm tree 20 times), and fig once. Of course, in one case olive has been indirectly mentioned. Note that, these fruits have been mentioned together, in some verses; such as Surah At-tin verse 1: “by the fig and the olive!”. From another side, traditional medicine books and modern clinical findings show that these fruits are effective in the treatment of cancers, cardio-vascular diseases, Alzheimer, hyper tension, bad cholesterol, infection and inflammation, and also improvement of immune system, and health of various body organs.

Conclusions: After evaluating traditional medicine books and modern medical findings about the properties of Quranic fruits and their effects, it was concluded that consumption of any one of these fruits (grape, olive, pomegranate, date, and fig) in daily diet, plays significant role in health promotion.

Keywords: Quranic Fruits, Therapeutic; Health

1. Context


Human beings have always dealt with pains and diseases, throughout the history; and have spared any efforts to get rid of them. From different experiences and methods such as fumigation, prayers and litanies to psychotherapy and use of herbal and chemical medicines, all indicate this point. In addition to the scientific development of human beings, physicians and specialists recommend using fruits for prevention and early treatment of diseases. From another side, vitamins, salts, antioxidants, and proteins of fruits have revealed the necessity of consuming them. Holy Quran, this universal law which has been revealed by the Lord to His most preferred creature, Muhammad (PBUH), contains the most comprehensive living directions, and relieves mental and physical diseases: “we sent down of the Quran that which is a healing and a mercy to believers” (1). In this scripture, the most necessary issues of life, health, medicine and hygiene have also been discussed. Pointing to grape, olive, pomegranate, and date in different Surahs of Holy Quran made us to take a step, although a small one, to take advantage of this divine word, by evaluating the properties of these fruits and their effects on man’s health.

2. Evidence Acquisitions


The current study was a review survey which has been conducted according to the Islamic references such as Holy Quran and Islamic interpretations, medical narratives, traditional and modern medical books, published articles, and also advanced internet search.

3. Results


3.1. Olive

“He brings forth gardens, trellised and un-trellised, palm trees and crops, different to eat, and the olive and pomegranates alike and unlike. When it bears fruit eat of it and pay what is due (the zakat) of it upon the harvest day. But do not be wasteful; he does not love the wasteful” (2). Holy Quran has directly mentioned olive for six times, and once in Surah Al-mumenoon has pointed to this fruit (2-7), indirectly: “also, a tree which grows on the Tor of Sinai and gives oil and relish for its eaters”. Olive is a fruit of Oleae uropaeatree.“Olea” is a Latin word that means oil which indicates high amount of oil in olive. Acid oleic (unsaturated fatty acid decreasing blood cholesterol) forms 75% of olive. Olive contains unsaturated oil and vitamin E. Each 100g of olive contains: 4.44 mg Fe, 4.03 mg vitamin E, 4.30 mg fiber, and 0.34 mg Cu. Free radicals may cause severe diseases; for example, free radicals may cause cholesterol oxidation. Oxidized cholesterol harms and accumulates in blood vessels that it leads to MI or heart attack. Therefore, antioxidant property of olive protects human from heart attack. Since olive is rich in vitamin E and unsaturated oils, by neutralizing free radicals prevents from colon cancer. Also, olive can reduce inflammation, severity of asthma, rheumatism, osteitis and arthritis. Other general names are: olive; scientific name: family name: olive; type of plant: tree and shrub; applicable parts: oil, fruit, leaf, skin; the most effective pharmaceuticalingredients: 1. fruit: oil, glycoside, 2. Leaf: ole estrone, manit, olivine, resin, tannin, eponine, choline.

3.1.1. Olive Properties in Traditional Medicine

Lowering blood pressure, laxative, diuretic, bile inducing, sciatic nerve and pain reliever, stomach cramps reliever, antipyretic, anti-sclerosis, kidney and bladder stones repellent, dry cough reliever, nourishing sexual energy; in external uses: back pains reliever, healing wounds, helpful for rheumatism, colic, gout; olive leaf is useful for insomnia; olive oil treats varicose and hemorrhoids, skin lesions, hepatic crisis, asthma, and snakebite (8). Olive reduces risk of cancers, especially skin, colon and women breast cancer; it can also prevent and treat cardio-vascular diseases and may reduce bad cholesterol (9).

3.1.2. Olive In Vitro Properties and Animal Effects, According to Modern Medicine

1. Olive and green tea raw extracts have cell lysis effect on BT474 cell lines (breast cancer cell lines). Olive extract showed higher effect in comparison with that of green tea, which was exacerbated with increasing the concentration (10).

2. Ischemia-reperfusion for 15 minutes causes extensive neuronal damage and death, and also leads to penetration of damage to hippocampus, especially in CAI. Consumption of olive oil significantly decreases the number of destroyed neurons and reduces memory disorders (11).

3. Administration of aqueous-alcoholic extract of tropical olive leaf can reduce susceptibility of diabetic vascular to phenylephrine, and improve the ratio of calcium to magnesium which is a measure of atherosclerosis. Perhaps in the future, it can be used on diabetic vascular as a treatment or preventing agent (12).

4. According to the effect of teak and olive oil cream on reducing the striae of pregnancy, by the end of the second quarter of pregnancy, it is recommended to perform further studies on other herbal essences to evaluate prevention of striae (13).

5. Antimicrobial effects on respiratory, gastrointestinal and genital infections (14).

6. Olive leaf is an effective agent in decreasing blood pressure, especially systolic blood pressure. According to the role of systolic isolated blood pressure in different problems of patients, this herbal medicine are an adjunct therapy which reduces the risk of developing cardio-vascular diseases in patients with hypertension (15).

7. Olive extract is applicable in treatment of gastric hyperacidity, stomach and liver ulcers, and also improvement of kidney function (16).

8. It is preferred to use olive oil, instead of sunflower oil, as a part of daily dietary fat for diabetic patients, to reduce risk of cardio-vascular diseases (17).

9. Olive oil decreases inflammatory pain (second phase of formalin test, and acetic acid test) of small laboratory mice, in vitro; but has no effects on neurogenic pain (first phase without formalin) (18).

10. Olive oil prevents cardio-vascular diseases, osteoporosis, Alzheimer, and colon and breast cancers (14).

11. Using olive oil, after cerebral ischemia in adult male mice, may significantly reduce cell death caused by damages resulted from Ischemia-reperfusion (19).

12. Probably, this plant, like glucose, can improve secretion of insulin in pancreas of normal rates rat (20). Holy Prophet (PBUH) said: “eat olive oil and lubricate your body with it, because it is from a blessed tree” (21).

3.2. Fig

“By the fig and the olive!” (7). In Holy Quran, God once has mentioned “fig” in Surah “At-tin” and has sworn to it. Fig tree is native to western Asia and Mediterranean countries and from these areas has been taken to Arabia, Syria, and Israel. Fig tree was sacred and respected among ancient Greek, in a way that its export had been banned. Greek poets and authors, such as Homer, Herodotus, and Plato have admired it in their poems and writings. In the early 18th century, fig was taken to California by Spanish religious missioners and today lots of fig is grown in this state and other southern states of USA. Around 85% of fig products are marketed as dried figs, because ripe figs corrupt quickly. Dried fig has 5times more calories than fresh fig. This fruit is rich in iron, and has relieves bloating (22). Its chemical compounds are: Fein, malic acid, carotene, nitrogenous substances, sugars, preose, amino acids, tyrosine, cravine, lipase and protease enzymes, and serotinic acid. Mineral compounds of fig are: calcium, iron, phosphorous, potassium, sodium, vitamin A, B1, B3, C, thiamine, riboflavin, and dynacin. Fig leaf contains: brigantine, piscine, bitter substance of psychosine, urease, papain, and tyrosine, a kind of glycosides, and rotin which contains gelose. Other general names are: fig tree, tin, cromose, cromoze ; scientific name: Ficus caracal; family name:berry; type of plant: tree and shrub; applicable parts: latex, leaf, fruit; the most effective pharmaceutical ingredients: 1. Fruit: glucose, vitamins A, B,C, D, different salts, and an unknown alkaloid; 2. Leaf: different enzymes such as protease, lipase, and diastase, bergapten; and 3. Latex: albumin, mineral salts, pectin, malic acid, proteolytic and aminolytic enzymes.

3.2.1. Fig Properties in Traditional Medicine

Fig is a mild laxative. Fig can relieve throat irritations, and prevent gingival and oral mucosa inflammation. Latex properties are: anti-warts and anti-corns; leaf properties are as follow: anti-hemorrhoid and anti-tumor, increases transpiration, diuretic, heat reduction, fattening, elimination of constipation, improvement of digestive tract, treatment of indigestion, it relieves throat swelling, and boosts sexual power, this latex is also swollen spleen reliever, anticancer, and treats skin diseases. Also, boiled dried fig can treat kidney and respiratory tract inflammation, pneumonia, pleurisy, measles, scarlet fever, and smallpox. Concentrated syrup of boiled dried fig is useful for common cold. To treat pertussis, bronchitis, and pneumonia fig coffee seems to be useful. Fig soup is nutrient and increases milk of lactating women. Dried fig boiled in milk is beneficial for angina, gingivitis, and swelling of oral mucosa. To treat arthritis and joint pains, mixture of goat milk and black fig is useful. Fig helps patients who suffer from low blood sugar and suddenly feel weak, because fig sugar is quickly absorbed by the small intestine. Brewed fig and fenugreek relieves sore throat and throat stiffness (23). To decrease blood pressure, weight, and increase bone density, and preventing weakness of muscles, consumption of fig is recommended. This fruit is also beneficial to reduce cholesterol and uric acid. Eating figs treats abnormal growth and prevents bowel cancer.

Figs stop the growth of cancer cells, and contain more antioxidants than other fruits. This fruit is rich in omega 3 and omega 6; hence, it is very useful for nervous system, brain and heart. Figs relieve headache, toothache, nausea, fever, gout, earache, burns, stomachache, abscess, and pulmonary and sexual transmitted diseases. Latex of fig tree has different properties; for instance, it can relieve skin diseases such as warts, corns, hair loss, and skin lesions. Additionally, poultice of fig latex and fenugreek treats gout (24).

3.2.2. Fig Properties, in Modern Human Medicine

1. Antioxidant and anticancer effects (25).

2. Anti-diarrhea effects (26).

3.2.3. Fig Properties, and in Vitro Studies in Modern Medicine

1. Piscine enzyme (protease of unripe fig) is an appropriate choice for producing nutritional milk powder containing hydrolyzed casein (27).

2. Fig leaf water reduces blood sugar in diabetic mice (28).

3. Hydro-alcoholic extract of fig leaf affects both acute and chronic phases of pain (29).

4. Effect of three nutritious diets including date, fig, and olive on probable changes of weight, memory and threshold of pain in white mice were evaluated. Results showed that all three fruits significantly improve memory of Syrian mice (30).

5. Holy Prophet (PBUH) said:” eat figs, because if I wanted to mention a fruit from paradise, I said figs. Since, it is a fruit without core which relieves hemorrhoid and gout (31). Imam Reza (AS) said: “figs remove halitosis and strengthen bones; grows hairs and relieves pains, and by eating it there is no need for any drugs (21).

3.3. Grape

“And the fruits of the palm and the vine, from which you derive intoxicants and wholesome provisions.Surely, in this there is a sign for the nation who understand” (32). God has given you blessed foods from palm and grape threes; you sometimes provide harmful foods and sometimes clean and good foods. In the Holy Quran, God has mentioned grape 11 times (3, 5, 32-40). This is one of the most important fruits which have been used by human beings from ancient times. Generally, regarding the old history of grape two hypotheses exist. Some believe that grape has been used even before creation of beans. Large quantities of wild grapes were grown in forests, and primitive men used its leaves and fruit. Grape is a fruit from paradise which contains vitamin A, B and C. it also contains small quantities of magnesium, calcium, iron, phosphorous, potassium, and albumin. Grape is an anticancer fruit which its property refers to its disinfecting effect. Other general names are: fruit: grape tree; scientific name: vitis vinifera; family name: vine; type of plant: shrub; applicable parts: fruit and leaf; the most effective pharmaceutical ingredients: its leaf contains: tannin, coersetin, different sugars, tartrate salts, Colin different acids, carotene; its fruit contains: sugars, gum, tannin, and tartrate acids, citric and malic acids, mineral salts, glycosides, xenophile, carotene, oil, and vitamin A, B1, B2, and C3.

3.3.1. Grape Properties in Traditional Medicine

Grape properties are as follows: blood purifier, constipation reliever, and bowel and stomach inflammation reliever, treatment of pertussis, anemia, gout, respiratory diseases, and phthisis (8). Properties of grape leaf are: astringent, stomach tonic, diuretic, and useful for stomachache (8). Properties of verjuice are: quench thirst, resolve members’ weakness, and treatment of jaundice and obesity. Also, diet of grape and raisins is useful for fatness.

3.3.2. Grape Properties, and in Vitro Studies in Modern Medicine

1. Antispasmodic effect of aqueous-alcoholic grape leaf on vas deferens of rat (41).

2. Antispasmodic effect of grape leaf “vitis vinifera” on the isolated uterus of rat (42).

3. Aqueous-alcoholic extract of grape leaf inhibits ileum contraction of rat. Barium chloride by increasing calcium release from intracellular sources cause contraction; therefore the extract cannot prevent contraction. Also, results of the present study are compatible with traditional application of grape leaf, to treat diarrhea (43).

4. Relaxant effect of aqueous-alcoholic extract of grape on rat trachea is probably because of voltage-operated calcium channel blockers. It seems that beta-adrenergic receptors, NO, and cholinergic receptors play no role in this inhibitory effect (44).

5. A part of this inhibitory effect of grape leaf extract is due to voltage-operated calcium channels, and another part of this inhibitory effect is because of calcium-operated K+ channels. Also, the results showed that inhibitory effect of this extract is not done without interfering with nitric oxide, alpha and beta-adrenergic, and opioid receptors. These results approve traditional use of grape leaf to treat diarrhea (45).

6. According to the results of the current study, it can be recommended that inhibitory effect of extract is done without interfering with prostacyclin, and without calcium, this effect is weakened. It is possible that aqueous-alcoholic extract of grape leaf has relaxed rat aortic, by interfering with calcium-operated K+ channels (46).

7. Consumption of grainy red grape may have beneficial effects on cholesterol and sermonic LDL-C of patients with hypercholesterolemia. To evaluate the effect of this kind of grape on TG and HDL-C, further studies are needed (47).

8. Consuming high amounts of grape seed reduced hypercholesterolemia resulted from injection of alloxan, in an experimental animal model of diabetes mellitus. This effect may result from antioxidants or other ingredients of grape seed (48).

9. In the study evaluating the effect of aqueous-alcoholic extract of grape leaf on recognition ability of small old and young white mice, it was concluded that in old group with high production of oxidant agents in brain which increases along with aging, administration of grape seed extract can eliminate or neutralize these components, avoid cell death, and improve their memories. But in young mice group, probably because of low production of oxidant agents no significant effect was observed (49).

10. Consumption of fish oil and grape seed extract combination, before the induction of colitis induced by acetic acid, plays protective role against macroscopic and microscopic damages, and colon inflammation in rats (50).

11. Red grape juice improves learning and passive avoidance memory in rats; this effect may result from antioxidant agents of red grape (51).

12. Antioxidant effects of grape seed extract on diabetic rats have also been evaluated (52). Imam Sadigh (AS) said: “Noah complained of sadness to God. God revealed him that: eat black grape; since it relieves sadness” (31).

3.4. Pomegranate

“He sends down water from the sky, and with it we bring forth the plant of everything. From these we bring forth green foliage and composite grain, palm trees laden with clusters of dates within reach, vineyards and olive groves and pomegranates alike and unlike. Behold their fruits when they bear fruit and ripen. Surely there are signs for the nation who believe” (3). God has mentioned the pomegranate in Holy Quran 3 times (2, 3, 53). A pomegranate can provide 40% of daily needs to vitamin C. it is also rich in folic acid and antioxidants. According to the study conducted in University of Tarbiat Modarres, Iran on the anthocyanin content of Iranian pomegranate, it was revealed that this fruit is rich in this substance. Antioxidant property of pomegranate depends on its phenolic components which anthocyanin is among them. Pomegranate is full of vitamin A, B, C, E, sugar, tannin, and a useful agent as “cremantin”. Pomegranate contains vitamins for hematopoiesis. Pomegranate has specific therapeutic properties. The sweat pomegranate is useful for pulmonary and respiratory tract diseases. Drinking pomegranate juice is heavier than eating its seeds (in other word, its digestion is more complicated). Cores and seeds of pomegranate are laxative; and its internal fibrous mass cleans intestines. Pomegranate, with vitamin B, strengthens the nerves, and with vitamin B6 is antiemetic and relieves longing in pregnant women. Since pomegranate is rich in iron and vitamins, it is useful for hematopoiesis. The best time to eat pomegranate is when breaking fast in the morning. Other general names are as follows: pomegranate tree; scientific name: Punicagranatum; type of plant: tree and shrub; the most effective pharmaceutical ingredients: skin and stem of fruit contains tannin, mannite, sugar, gum, pectin, and prallethrin alkaloids.

3.4.1. Pomegranate Properties in Traditional Medicine

Pomegranate fruit has the following properties: laxative, diuretic, treatment of impotence, jaundice, respiratory tract pains and cough, itching, useful to treat dysentery and diarrhea, useful for hyperlipidemia and anemia. The root of its tree prevents pregnancy, causes menstruation, fun and exhilarating. Pomegranate juice is also diuretic, and useful for excretion of intestinal worms (8).

3.4.2. Some Properties and Effects of Pomegranate Consumption

1. Skin and seed of pomegranate can reduce the antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori against metronidazole, and clarithromycin.

2. Artemisia, barberry, eucalyptus, harmal, hypericum, black cumin, pomegranate and tamarisk have antibacterial effects on MSSA, MRSA specious (54).

3. This fruit is used in traditional medicine, because of its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects and also sedative agents. Extracts derived from different parts of this fruit are rich in phenolic components and essence of its skin and seeds have strong antioxidant activity which can be used in inactivation of free radicals. Inhibitory effect of its seed oil on skin and breast cancers has been reported. Also, seed oil and extract of different parts of pomegranate is used in the production of phytoesterogenic components. Today, although pomegranate is used as a fruit, its pharmaceutical properties have also dragged the attention of many researchers (55).

4. According to the useful effects of pomegranate juice on decreasing systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients with type II diabetes, it can be recommended to prevent hypertension in these patients (56).

5. Pomegranate juice has more phenolic components and high total antioxidant capacity than other fruit juices understudy in the current research. Pomegranate juice can also inhibit different radicals and has beneficial effects on strengthening the antioxidant defense system, and can reduce oxidative stress (57).

6. Daily consumption of antioxidant agents (pomegranate and grape) can improve endothelial function in teenagers suffering from metabolic syndrome (58).

7. According to the current study, pomegranate juice, because of its polyphenolic flavonoids, has antioxidant properties and its consumption may reduce oxidative stress (59).

8. Using PSO (pomegranate seed oil) in patients with hyperlipidemia for 4 weeks reduces serum triglycerides, decreases the ratio of triglyceride to HDL-cholesterol, and the ratio of cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol (60).

3.4.3. In Vitro Studies and Animal Effects

1. Although administration of pomegranate juice and seed oil does not decrease serum lipids in animals with hypercholesterolemia, inhibits progress of atherosclerotic plaque in their aorta (61).

2. Single intra-articular injection of MIA (monoiodoacetate) leads to rapid and progressive damage to articular cartilage which is exactly similar to osteoarthritis in human. In the current study, the effect of pomegranate extract on the treatment of histopathological articular cartilage damages in Syrian mice was approved (62).

Imam Sadigh (AS) said: “fruits are 120 types which pomegranate is the most important one” (21). Holy Prophet (PBUH) said: “eat pomegranate as there is no seed in the stomach, unless illuminates the heart and drives out the devil, for 40 days” (63).

3.5. Dates

“(Oh Maryam) and shake the trunk of this palm tree it will drop fresh ripe dates upon you. Therefore eat and drink and rejoice with your eyes” (64). In Holy Quran, once in Surah Maryam verse 25, God has mentioned dates and palm tree 20 times, respectively (2, 3, 6, 32-35, 37, 39, 40, 53, 64-70). It can be considered as indication of different benefits of palm tree, apart from its fruit (dates). Date has been mentioned in all scriptures with respect which is the evidence that it is worthwhile. According to Holy Quran, date is a fruit from paradise. This old fruit has been mentioned in the Holy Book 42 times. This useful fruit is rather unknown for American and European people and they only use it in cakes and confectionaries. But in Middle East and especially in Arabic countries it is used as main food. Jews believe that there were plenty of palm trees in Palestine, or current Israel. In Christianity, palm leaf is the symbol of testimony and spirit of martyrs who lost their lives in the faith of Jesus Christ. Palm tree has many benefits, and almost all parts of this tree are usable. An Arabic idiom says that: “benefits of palm tree are as many as the days of a year” (71).

Other general names are: palm tree; scientific name: Phoenix dactylifera; family name: Palmae; the main ingredients: tannin, mucilage, mineral salts (calcium and iron), sugars, pectin, albuminoidal components, vitamin A, B1, B2, B, D, E.

3.5.1. Date Properties in Traditional Medicine

It is general body strengthening, fattening, delivery accelerator, and analgesic. Ashe of date is used to treat wounds. Also, date is nutrient, causes sputum, tonic, laxative, diuretic, and sedative.

3.5.2. Properties and Effects of Consuming Date in Modern Medicine

1. According to the bacteriostatic effect of date on Streptococcus mutants, date can be considered as a tooth decay preventing food (72).

2. Consumption of carbohydrate foodstuffs (three dates) during delivery, in addition to preventing severe vomiting, it shortens the second stage of delivery (73).

3. Consuming honey-date syrup may accelerate natural procedure of delivery. Drinking this syrup during delivery may prevent long delivery (74).

4. Aqueous-methanol extract of date has antioxidant effects (75).

5. Replacing part of daily bread with date carbohydrate has better effects on reduction of blood glucose two hours after a meal. By conducting further studies regarding adding date to the diets, monitoring the blood sugar of diabetic patients can be improved (76).

3.5.3. In Vitro Studies, and Animal Effects

1. Analgesic effect of date extract is mainly topical and anti-inflammatory (77).

2. Date seed increases testosterone and decreases dihydrotestosterone (78).

3. Date seed has the following properties: hyperlipidemia (because of linoleic acid, and oleic acid), and hypoglycemia (because of magnesium and zinc which induce synthesis and secretion of insulin, and manganese which is similar to insulin) (79).

4. Palm pollen has significantly increased the level of estrogen and progesterone (79).

Holy Prophet (PBUH) said: “feed pregnant women with dates, since it makes her baby tolerant and innocent (31). Imam Ali (AS) said: “eat dates, since it relieves pains (80).

4. Conclusions


After evaluating and studying traditional medicine references, and also modern medical findings regarding the properties of Quranic fruits and their effects, it was concluded that consumption of Quranic fruits (grape, olive, pomegranate, date, and fig) and their inclusion in the diet prevents different diseases, especially cancers, Alzheimer, cardio-vascular diseases, and also decrease of blood pressure, bad cholesterol, infections, and inflammations. It can also help with the health of body organs, and strengthen the immune system and etc. These fruits with water, mineral substances, salts, vitamins, sugars, fats, proteins and other components, can contribute to the treatment of many diseases. In conclusion, use of Quranic fruits plays significant role in the promotion of human health. In 58 studies which have been cited in result section of the current study, properties and effects of these Quranic fruits have been investigated, separately. For instance, antioxidant and anticancer effect of fig has been evaluated in a study (25); and in another one, pomegranate juice with poly phenolic flavonoids has antioxidant effect reduces oxidative stress (59); or in another case, according to the bacteriostatic effect of date on Streptococcus mutants, it has been introduced as a foodstuff with decay preventing effect (72). However, in some verses of Holy Quran, some of these fruits have been mentioned along with another fruit; for example, in Surah Al-baqara verse 266, Al-Isra verse 91, Al-mumenoon verse 19, and Al-rad verse 4, date and grape are mentioned together. In Surah Al-anaam verse 11, olive has been mentioned along with pomegranate; in Ar-rahman verse 68 date and pomegranate; in Surah Abasa verse 29, olive and date; in Surah At-tin verse 1 fig and olive; and in Surah Al-anaam verse 99, grape, olive and pomegranate have been mentioned together. Hence, it is recommended to conduct further studies on the properties and effects of Quranic fruits, in combination; for example, combination of fig and olive in a ratio of 6 to 1; or olive and pomegranate in a ratio of 6 to 3; or combination of date and grape in a ratio of 1 to 11, and even 21 to 11. According to the main ingredients of these fruity combinations, their effects on a certain diseases can be evaluated. It is clear that according to the scientific developments and evolutionary process of relevant experiments, benefits and positive aspects of using Quranic fruits have gradually become more specific and extensive. Definitely, following Quranic hints and directions guarantees mental and physical health. Of course, regarding the prohibition of Holy Prophet (PBUH) about eating different fruits together, Imam Sadigh (AS) has explained that: “this narrative is true, if you are at the table with other people. But if you are alone, eat as you wish”. In the book “reasons of Sharia” (Ilal Al-sharaye), page 519, it has also been cited from Imam Kazim (AS) that: “Holy Prophet (PBUH) prohibits eating two fruits together. If you were alone, eat as you wish. But if you were at a table with other Muslims, do not eat fruits together”. At the time of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), since people had difficult life and little food, they usually gathered for eating; he has given such guidance (81).

Results of the current study show that, according to the properties of different Quranic fruits, consumption of any Quranic fruits (grape, olive, fig, date, and pomegranate) plays significant role in prevention and treatment of different diseases; and in conclusion, these fruits are very important to the promotion of health. Therefore, according to the cited Quranic verses, it is recommended to perform further studies on the properties and effects of Quranic fruits, in combination.

Acknowledgments

Authors thank deputy of research and technology of Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, and also scientific committee, executive committee, coordination committee, and officials of Quran and Health Congress.

Footnotes

Implication for health policy makers/practice/research/medical education: Evaluating therapeutic properties of Quranic fruits that will result on human health.
Authors Contribution: None declared.
Financial Disclosure: There is no conflict.
Supports/founding: There is no financial support.

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