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Evaluating the Importance of Sky in Human Health and Life, From the Viewpoint of Holy Quran


1 Faculty of Medicine, Azad University of Ardabil, Ardabil, IR Iran
2 Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran
3 Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran
*Corresponding author: Mohammad Barzegar-Jalali, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9144155338, Fax: +98-4113344798, E-mail: mahbarja@gmail.com.
Quran and Medicine. 3(1)
Article Type: Review Article; Received: Jan 7, 2013; Revised: Apr 10, 2013; Accepted: Apr 20, 2013; epub: Feb 1, 2014;

Abstract


Context: Holy Quran is the last and the most complete scripture which God has revealed to guide human beings. Observing Quranic commands results in satisfaction of the Lord, worldly prosperity and salvation in hereafter. Discovering secrets of creation and miracles of Quran, through modern sciences and technologies, is a way for researchers and intellectuals to ponder on wisdom of God. The current study has evaluated the importance of sky in human health and life from the viewpoint of Holy Quran.

Evidence Acquisitions: Verses, regarding the properties of sky affecting human life and health, were gathered from Holy Quran, and then they were discussed by the use of interpretive references and also physical, biological, and medical findings.

Results: According to Holy Quran, sky has been mentioned in two general concepts as physical (tangible), and spiritual. “Tangible sky” includes atmosphere, and spaces over atmosphere, heavenly planets and their position. Holy verses indicate the point that “tangible sky” has been created with the property of “reserved roof” and “returning” characteristics. Water vapor from oceans and seas rise to sky, and return to earth as rain and snow, and also reflection of hazardous ultraviolet radiation and other fatal radioactive rays resulted from solar storms to the extra-atmospheric spaces, are examples of the important evidence of “returning”. Also, earth is protected against meteorites. Descending the vital element of iron from other planets to earth is a clear example for the importance of sky in the concept of heavenly planets.

Conclusions: Fourteen centuries ago, Holy Quran has indicated the importance of “tangible sky” in man`s life and health. Scientists of the current century have just realized some properties and applications of corporeal sky, by the help of modern technologies. “Spiritual sky” is the hidden realm of Almighty and the place of His government over all creatures. This sky will be never discovered through experimental sciences and the only way to identify it is to believe in God.

Keywords: Life; Health, Islam

1. Context


Holy Quran is the last and the most complete scripture which God has revealed to guide human beings. Observing Quranic commands results in satisfaction of the Lord, worldly prosperity and salvation in the hereafter. This Holy book is a miracle from different angles. Peak of rhetoric; unique and inimitable style; charisma and spirituality; expressing the excellent knowledge of God by an illiterate; sturdy, steady and unchangeable rules; excellent arguments; occult news from past and future; strength and no difference in expression, creating social revolution in human life and secrets about the scientific miracles of creation are from miracles of Holy Quran (1). Finding secrets of creation and miracles of Quran is a way for researchers and intellectuals to ponder on wisdom of God. In this regard, the Lord says: “in the creation of the heavens and the earth, these are signs for people who understand” (2). In the current study, a part of scientific wonders and miracles of Holy Quran, regarding the importance of sky in human health and life, has been indicated. Lexical root of Arabic word “samaa” (sky) is from the words “samoo” and “somoo” which means dignity and elevation. Some other researchers also believe that it is Arabized form of “shamia” in Aramaic, Hebrew and Syriac. In Holy Quran, the words “samaa” and “samavat” have been mentioned more than 300 times, in two general concepts of corporeal “tangible” and “spiritual” skies. Corporeal concepts of sky include upside, atmosphere, heavenly planets, and their positions (3). Favored position and presence position that are the locations to plan the world affairs are among the spiritual meanings for sky (4).


1.1. Creation and Duties of Sky

In Holy Quran, regarding the creation of heavens (heavenly planets and their positions) such as world sky (first heaven), and determining their duties and tasks, God says (5): “then he willed to the heaven when it was smoke, and to it and the earth he said: 'come willingly, or unwillingly. We come willingly, ' they answered. In two days he determined them seven heavens, and he revealed to each heaven its commands. We decorated the lowest heaven with lamps and preserve them. Such is the decree of the almighty, the knower” (5).

2. Evidence Acquisitions


Verses, regarding the properties of sky affecting human life and health, were gathered from Holy Quran, and then they were discussed by the use of interpretive references and also physical, biological, and medical findings.

3. Results


3.1. Role of the Atmosphere in Human Health and Life

Atmosphere forms a part of world sky. Scientific findings of previous century indicate that atmosphere is composed of different layers, and their properties, such as thickness, pressure, density, temperature and gas types, and also their duties and applications are different. Atmosphere layers, from down to top, are as follows (6): troposphere, ozonosphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, ionosphere and exosphere.

- Troposphere is in contact with earth and its height is about 15 km. this layer includes 80% of atmosphere mass. Maximum air pressure and density are at seashores, and surface of seas and oceans. This layer contains 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and 1% rare gases, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. Nitrogen is an elemental constituent of vital and organic compounds of human, animals, planets and microbes. Part of organic compounds of nitrogen is supplied from atmosphere, through complex in vivo and in vitro reactions. Oxygen directly enters body through respiration and plays significant role in cellular metabolism. Troposphere layer is the location which wind, rain and snow are formed. Wind, by stylizing air, adds to the freshness and greenness of environment. Rain and snow are the only sources of freshwater on earth. Water, is the unique biological liquid. Holy Quran, regarding the significance of water, says: “we made every living thing of water” (7). Around 60% of human body is composed of water. All biochemical reactions take place in body water. Pathological increase and decrease of body water volume leads to unpleasant consequences. Green environment is indebted to rainfalls. Green plants and trees are the main source of oxygen production. Although the amount of regional rainfall may vary in different years, total amount of annual rainfall on earth is fixed, which is one of the manifestations of predeterminations (measurement) of God, and from scientific miracles of Holy Quran: “and (it is He), who sends down water from the sky in its measure thereby we revive the land that was dead, as such you shall be brought forth” (8). Results of the performed studies indicate that the total amount of yearly precipitation is 513 trillion tones (6). If this stability disrupts, health and life of human beings and other creatures will be threatened. Ozonosphere layer is a layer with 20 km thickness which inhibits entry of the solar high-energy (short wavelength) ultraviolet and hazardous radiations into earth. This layer is not an obstacle for the passage of visible rays, but also passes small amounts of low-energy (long wavelength) ultraviolet radiations which are essential for photosynthesis process of plants. Low-energy ultraviolet radiations turn human skin lipids to vitamin D. this radiation is also very important in disinfection of environment. In recent years, some of man-made compounds, such as Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) applicable in cooling industries and aerosols, deplete some regions of ozone layer which increases the rate of skin cancer incidence. Ionosphere layer, with the average thickness of 500 km, contains gases which are ionized under high-energy of solar radiations. Electromagnetic waves of radio and television broadcast from ground stations return to the earth, after contact to ionosphere layer. Thus the wireless audio and video communications between different remote areas are established (6).

Other layers, such as mesosphere, play an important role in disintegration and fragmentation of meteorites. Temperature of the atmosphere decreases by elevating from ground to the end of the mesosphere, along with increasing altitude. In thermosphere, the temperature rises severely, and then remains almost constant (8). Atmospheric pressure, from ground to the end of the mesosphere, has inverse relationship with altitude. As the altitude of atmosphere increases, its pressure drops down, and breathing becomes harder. Low pressure means lack or air (oxygen). Relation between hard breathing and asthma with lack of air in the upper layers of atmosphere has been mentioned in the following verse (9), in a wisely likening: “whomsoever he desires to lead astray, he makes his chest narrow, tight, as though he were climbing to heaven”. In this verse the chest of whomever that gets tight because of unbelief, has been likened to the chest of someone that goes up in the sky. It is obvious that around 1400 years ago, during the descent of the Holy Quran, human did not know anything about air pressure. Hence, the mentioned verse of Holy Quran is one of its miracles, and it is a clear sign for the researchers. In the 17th century, Italian Torricelli invented barometer and measured air pressure. But the effect of increasing altitude (decreasing air pressure) on human health and life was revealed in the early 20th century, following the invention of airplane by Wright brothers. Pilots suffered from shortness of breath, dizziness, nausea and weakness, and even sometimes died, during flights. Air pressure at the altitude of 6000 m over sea level is equal to 46% of the pressure at sea level, and under this condition, man suffers from severe shortness of breathing and goes to coma. Air pressure at sea level and surface is equal to 1 atm, or 760 mmHg. Airplanes usually fly at an altitude of 3000 feet (9144 m). At this altitude, air pressure is 30% of air pressure at sea level. Therefore, new airplanes are provided by oxygen control device. Decreasing the air pressure, especially for heart and respiratory patients, leads to life-threatening consequences. Since human cannot bear decrease of air pressure and any changes in the proportion of respiratory gases, hence air pressure and the proportion of respiratory gases can be considered as predeterminations (measurement) of God. According to Holy Quran, the sky has specific characteristics, which through them performs the assigned tasks of God. “Returning” means repetitive sweeping, or in the other words, is the cycle; but in the translations and interpretations of Holy Quran, it has been applied as restore and the restorer (3, 6). Holy verse of “returning” says: “by the sky with its returning rain” (10). Many examples for “returning” exist (3, 6). Steam rises, by winds, from the surface of oceans and seas to sky, is condensed and then returns to earth as raindrops or snowflakes. Radio and television waves originated from land-based stations return back to the earth, trough sky. Hazardous and life-threatening rays, such as high-energy X-ray and ultraviolet radiation, which are emitted from cosmic spaces beyond the atmosphere to earth, are reflected upward through the atmosphere. Seasons returning, rising and setting of stars, sun and moon are also considered as a kind of “returning”. Return of air pollutant gases to nature, such as carbon dioxide (one of air pollutants), and changing to oxygen by green plants, and return of heavenly planets to initial smoke state, on the eve of doomsday, are also some examples of “returning” (3). Mentioned cases, which mostly affect human health and life, are related to the “tangible” sky. If the purpose of sky is the spiritual heaven, answering to the prayers and returning the result of man’s actions are referred to as “returning”. In addition to the protective role of atmosphere in returning hazardous radiations and disintegrating meteorites, strong magnetic field around earth also returns deadly radiations resulted from solar storms back into space, and prevents their entry in to the earth. This magnetic field, also called “Magnetosphere” or “Van Allen Shields”, has thousands of kilometers thickness and is a source of iron and nickel in the earth’s central core. Solar storms result from internal frequent nuclear explosions. Power of each explosion is one hundred billion times of the bomb exploded in Hiroshima more than sixty years ago (6). Protective characteristics for the creation of sky have made it as reserved ceiling which protects human and other creatures from meteorites, radioactive radiations, and high-energy cosmic rays.

4. Conclusions


While these properties have been identified by the scientists of recent century, Holy Quran has reported on this heavenly protective system, from centuries ago: “we established the heaven as a well-protected roof” (11). Almighty has protected not only the earth and its inhabitants from physical harms through the sky, but also has protected the sky from evils and in this regard says: “and guarded them from every stoned Satan” (12). In these verses, the word “sky”, except for one case, refers to atmosphere and the space above earth. In these verses, the importance of sky in human health and life has been indicated, as the concept of heavenly planets, and an example is also given. Regarding the importance of iron, Holy Quran says: “we have sent down iron in which there is great might and diverse benefit for people” (13). According to the literal meaning of the phrase “we have sent”, iron has been physically sent down from the sky to the earth. New investigations of cosmic physicists reveal that in solar system there is no condition for the production of heavy metals, such as iron. These metals are produced in the core of stars much larger than the sun, which the temperature is higher than hundreds of millions in Celsius. Meteorites caused by explosion of the mentioned stars are scattered in the universe and being absorbed to other planets, such as earth, through gravity. Earth core contains plenty of iron and nickel. These metals cause magnetic field around the earth. This magnetic field prevents entry of deadly and destroying radioactive particles and radiations into the atmosphere (6, 14). Iron is found as iron salts in land mines. This element is one of the necessities of human health and life. Hemoglobin, the principal component of red blood cells, which plays an important role in oxygenizing body tissues, is an organic compound containing iron. Lack of iron causes anemia and decreases production of hemoglobin (15).

Acknowledgments

Authors, hereby, thank for the supports of Drug Applied Research Center of Tabriz Medical Sciences University.

Footnotes

Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education: The current study has evaluated the importance of sky in human health and life, from the viewpoint of Holy Quran.
Authors’ Contribution: None declared.
Financial Conflicts: There is no conflict of interest.
Findings/Supports: It has been supported by Tabriz Medical Sciences University.

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